strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 biology Chapter 9
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 Introduction
In 12th grade biology, food production research focuses on strategies to increase agricultural productivity. From traditional animal breeding to modern biotechnology, students are immersed in fields such as genetic engineering and precision farming. The goal is not only to add value but also to ensure food stability and quality. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to solving global food security problems. This course is designed for students to understand the relationship between science, technology, and agriculture.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 Definition
Strategies for increasing nutrition in grade 12 focus on science and technology adopted to increase agricultural productivity. This includes technologies such as genetic engineering, precision agriculture, and sustainable practices. The aim is to improve profitability, food quality, and environmental sustainability in the context of global food competition.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 Important Notes
- Genetic Engineering:
- Grade 12 students use genetic modification to improve crop quality, such as resistance to pests, disease, and environmental stress, to produce better yields.
- Precision Agriculture:
- Understand the importance of precision agriculture, where GPS, sensors, and data analytics are used to optimize crops, reduce resource use, and increase efficiency.
- Sustainable practices:
- Emphasize sustainable farming methods, including organic farming, agroecology, and conservation agriculture, to reduce environmental impact and ensure long-term food production.
- Crop rotation and diversification:
- explore the benefits of crop rotation and diversification of plant varieties to improve soil fertility, reduce pest pressure, and increase agricultural resilience.
- Aquaculture Engineering:
- Exploring ways to improve seafood production through responsible aquaculture practices that help meet the protein needs of growing populations.
- Biotechnological Interventions:
- Explore the role of biotechnology in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to improve plant traits, disease resistance, and nutrients.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 Explanation
With the ever-increasing world population, the enhancement of food production emerges as a critical necessity. Biological principles, applied to both animal husbandry and plant breeding, play a pivotal role in our efforts to meet the growing demand for food.
Innovative techniques such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture are anticipated to significantly contribute to further augmenting food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry, essential for farmers, combines science and art in the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. It encompasses the care and breeding of various animals like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, and goats, as well as poultry farming and fisheries. Fisheries involve activities such as rearing, catching, and selling fish, mollusks, and crustaceans.
Throughout history, humans have utilized animals for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc. Notably, over 70% of the global livestock population is estimated to be in India and China.
It’s surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only 25 percent, indicating a very low productivity per unit. Besides conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies must be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to traditional farm management practices significantly boosts food production. Various animal farm systems employ specific management procedures
220.127.116.11 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying involves managing animals for milk and its products. Dairy farm management focuses on processes and systems to increase yield and improve milk quality. Factors such as selecting high-yielding breeds, ensuring proper housing, providing adequate water,
maintaining disease resistance, scientific feeding practices, and maintaining cleanliness and hygiene during milking, storage, and transport contribute to successful dairy farming.
18.104.22.168 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry, including chickens, ducks, and sometimes turkeys and geese, is crucial for food and egg production. Poultry farm management emphasizes selecting disease-free breeds, ensuring suitable farm conditions, providing proper feed and water, and maintaining hygiene and health care practices, paralleling dairy farm management.
Have you come across TV news or newspaper reports on the ‘bird flu virus’ causing concern in the country, affecting egg and chicken consumption? Investigate further to determine if the panic reaction was justified and discuss preventive measures for containing the flu if chickens are infected.
9.1.2 Animal Breeding
Animal breeding, a crucial aspect of animal husbandry, aims to increase animal yield and enhance desirable qualities. Consider the type of characters for which animals are bred and whether the selection of characters differs from the choice of animals.
A ‘breed’ refers to a group of animals related by descent and similar in most characteristics. Identify common cattle and poultry breeds in your area. Breeding within the same breed is termed inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds are termed outbreeding.
Inbreeding: Involves mating closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations. Superior males and females of the same breed are paired, and their progeny are evaluated for further mating.
In cattle, a superior female produces more milk per lactation, while a superior male (bull) gives rise to superior progeny. Inbreeding, similar to Mendel’s purlines, increases homozygosity, exposes harmful recessive genes, and helps accumulate superior genes, leading to increased productivity.
However, prolonged inbreeding can result in reduced fertility and productivity, known as inbreeding depression. In such cases, selected animals of the breeding population should be mated with unrelated individuals
Breeding animals with unrelated superior counterparts of the same breed often aids in restoring fertility and yield.
Out-breeding: Out-breeding involves breeding unrelated animals, either between individuals of the same breed with no common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between different breeds (cross-breeding) or even different species (inter-specific hybridization).
Out-crossing: This practice entails mating animals within the same breed without common ancestors for 4-6 generations. The offspring, known as an out-cross, is beneficial for animals below average in productivity, helping overcome inbreeding depression.
Cross-breeding: Here, superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed, combining desirable qualities. The hybrid progeny may be used for commercial production or subjected to inbreeding and selection to develop new stable breeds.
Interspecific hybridization: This method involves mating male and female animals of two different but related species, producing progeny with desirable features of both parents. An example is the mule, produced through a specific cross.
Controlled breeding experiments often utilize artificial insemination, where semen is collected from a selected male and injected into the reproductive tract of a chosen female. This method helps overcome challenges associated with normal matings.
While the success rate of crossing mature male and female animals using artificial insemination can be low, additional methods, such as Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET), are employed for herd improvement. MOET involves administering hormones to induce superovulation, increasing the chances of successful hybrid production.
In the Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET), a cow is administered hormones with FSH-like activity to induce superovulation, resulting in the production of 6-8 eggs. After mating with an elite bull or artificial insemination, fertilized eggs at 8–32 cell
stages are non-surgically recovered and transferred to surrogate mothers. The genetic mother is available for another round of superovulation.
This technology demonstrated for cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc., has successfully bred high milk-yielding females and high-quality meat-yielding bulls, rapidly increasing herd size.
Bee-keeping, or apiculture, involves maintaining honeybee hives for honey production. It has evolved from a traditional cottage industry to a large-scale income-generating practice. Bee-keeping can be conducted in areas with sufficient bee pastures, and the common species for
rearing is Apis indica. Bee-keeping is not labor-intensive but requires specialized knowledge in areas such as bee habits, hive location selection, swarm management, hive maintenance, and honey and beeswax collection. Bees also play a crucial role as pollinators in crop fields, increasing both pollination efficiency and crop yield.
Fishery encompasses the industry dedicated to the catching, processing, or selling of fish and other aquatic animals. A significant portion of the population relies on fish and aquatic animals like prawns, crabs, lobster, etc., for food.
Common freshwater fishes include Catla, Rohu, and common carp, while marine options include Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel, and Pomfrets. Fisheries contribute significantly to food sources and the economy. Explore the types of fish commonly consumed in your area.
Fisheries play a vital role in the Indian economy, providing income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers, particularly in coastal states. For many, it serves as the sole source of livelihood. To meet the growing demands on fisheries, various techniques such
as aquaculture and pisciculture have been employed to increase the production of aquatic plants and animals, both in freshwater and marine environments.
The distinction between pisciculture and aquaculture lies in the breeding focus, contributing to the development and prosperity of the fishery industry, generating income for farmers, and contributing to the country’s economy. This progress is often referred to as the ‘Blue Revolution,’ mirroring the transformative impact of the ‘Green Revolution.’
9.2 PLANT BREEDING
While traditional farming has limitations in biomass production, plant breeding as a technology has significantly increased yields. The Green Revolution in India is a notable example, emphasizing the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties in crops like wheat, rice, and maize.
9.2.1 What is Plant Breeding?
Plant breeding involves purposeful manipulation of plant species to create desired plant types suitable for cultivation, providing better yields and disease resistance. This practice has been in existence for thousands of years, with recorded evidence dating back to 9,000-11,000 years ago.
Major food crops today are derived from domesticated varieties through classical plant breeding, involving hybridization and artificial selection.
With advancements in genetics, molecular biology, and tissue culture, plant breeding now integrates molecular genetic tools.
Desired traits include increased crop yield, improved quality, enhanced tolerance to environmental stresses, and resistance to pathogens and insect pests.
Plant breeding programs are globally conducted systematically, whether in government institutions or commercial companies. The key steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop include:
(i) Collection of Variability: Genetic variability forms the foundation of any breeding program. Pre-existing genetic variability is often sourced from wild relatives of the crop.
Collecting and preserving various wild varieties, species, and relatives of cultivated species are prerequisites for effectively utilizing natural genes. The entire collection, known as germplasm, encompasses diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop.
(ii) Evaluation and Selection of Parents: Germplasm is evaluated to identify plants with desirable character combinations. Selected plants are multiplied and employed in hybridization. Purelines are created whenever possible.
(iii) Cross-Hybridization Among Selected Parents: Desired characters are often combined from two different parents through cross-hybridization. This involves a meticulous process of collecting pollen grains from the chosen male parent and placing them on the stigma of the selected female parent.
The resulting hybrids may not always combine the desired characters, making this a time-consuming and meticulous process.
(iv) Selection and Testing of Superior Recombinants: This step involves selecting plants among the progeny of the hybrids with the desired character combination. The selection process is crucial and requires scientific evaluation.
The selected plants are self-pollinated for several generations until they achieve uniformity (homozygosity), ensuring the stability of desired traits.
(v) Testing, Release, and Commercialization of New Cultivars: The newly selected lines undergo evaluation for yield and other agronomic traits, including quality and disease resistance.
This assessment occurs in research fields, considering ideal conditions such as fertilization, irrigation, and other crop management practices. After evaluation, successful lines are released and commercialized as new cultivars.
By testing materials in farmers’ fields for at least three growing seasons at various locations across the country, representing all agroclimatic zones where the crop is typically grown, the evaluation process ensures comprehensive data.
The materials are assessed in comparison to the best available local crop cultivar, often termed a check or reference cultivar.
India, primarily an agricultural country, relies significantly on this sector, which contributes to approximately 33 percent of India’s GDP and employs nearly 62 percent of the population. Post-independence, a critical challenge faced by the country was ensuring sufficient food
production for the growing population. Given the limitation of cultivable land, India has focused on increasing yields per unit area from existing farmland. The mid-1960s witnessed a transformative phase with the development of several high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice through various plant breeding techniques.
This breakthrough, often referred to as the Green Revolution, resulted in a dramatic increase in food production in the country. Figure 9.3 depicts some Indian hybrid crops of high-yielding varieties.
Wheat and Rice: Between 1960 and 2000, wheat production surged from 11 million tonnes to 75 million tonnes, and rice production rose from 35 million tonnes to 89.5 million tonnes. This remarkable increase was attributed to the development of semi-dwarf varieties of wheat and rice.
Nobel laureate Norman E. Borlaug, at the International Centre for Wheat and Maize Improvement in Mexico, played a pivotal role in developing semi-dwarf wheat. In 1963, high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties such as Sonalika and Kalyan Sona were introduced
across the wheat-growing regions of India. Semi-dwarf rice varieties, derived from IR-8 (developed at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines) and Taichung Native-1 (from Taiwan), were introduced in 1966. Later, India developed even better-yielding semi-dwarf varieties like Jaya and Ratna.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 summary
Animal husbandry involves the scientific care and breeding of domestic animals to meet the growing demand for food and animal products in terms of both quality and quantity. Successful animal husbandry practices encompass the management of farms and farm
animals, as well as animal breeding. Bee-keeping, or apiculture, has experienced significant growth due to the high nutritive value and medicinal importance of honey. The fishery industry also plays a crucial role in meeting the increasing demand for fish, fish products, and other aquatic foods.
Plant breeding is employed to develop varieties that are resistant to pathogens and insect pests, thereby increasing food yield. This method has been instrumental in enhancing the protein content of plant foods and improving overall food quality.
In India, various crop plant varieties have been produced using plant breeding techniques, contributing to increased food production. Additionally, techniques like tissue culture and somatic hybridization hold vast potential for in vitro manipulation of plants to create new varieties.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 Question and Answer
Question:1 How did the Green Revolution contribute to food production in India?
Answer: The Green Revolution, characterized by the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice in the mid-1960s, dramatically increased food production in India. It addressed the challenge of producing enough food for the growing population, marking a significant phase in agricultural advancement
Question:2 What is the significance of tissue culture and somatic hybridization in plant breeding?
Answer: Tissue culture and somatic hybridization offer vast potential for manipulating plants in vitro to create new varieties. These techniques allow for precise control over the development of plants, contributing to advancements in plant breeding and food production.
Question:3 Discuss the role of animal breeding in animal husbandry.
Answer: Animal breeding is a fundamental aspect of animal husbandry, aiming to improve the yield and desirable qualities of livestock. It involves selecting and mating animals to enhance traits such as high milk production, disease resistance, and overall productivity.
Question:4 How has plant breeding evolved to create new crop varieties in India?
Answer: A: In India, plant breeding techniques have been used to produce various crop varieties, contributing to increased food production. These techniques include developing resistance to pathogens, improving protein content, and creating new varieties through tissue culture and somatic hybridization.
Question:5 What is the impact of the fishery industry on food production?
Answer:The fishery industry meets the growing demand for fish, fish products, and other aquatic foods. It plays a vital role in enhancing overall food production and providing a source of nutrition.
strategies for enhancement in food production class 12 MCQ
Question:1 What is the primary purpose of animal husbandry in food production?
- A. Soil conservation
- B. Genetic engineering
- C. Breeding and management of domestic animals
- D. Weather forecasting
Question:2 How does bee-keeping contribute to food production?
- A. Producing textiles
- B. Enhancing pollination efficiency
- C. Controlling pests
- D. Creating biofuels
Question:3 In the context of plant breeding, what is tissue culture used for?
- A. Weather prediction
- B. In vitro manipulation of plants
- C. Pest control
- D. Soil enrichment
Question:4 What is the main objective of the Green Revolution in India?
- A. Promoting eco-tourism
- B. Enhancing food production
- C. Minimizing industrial pollution
- D. Expanding space exploration
Question:5 What is the significance of fishery in food production?
- A. Enhancing poultry farming
- B. Meeting the demand for aquatic foods
- C. Producing dairy products
- D. Improving crop yield
Question:6 How do semi-dwarf varieties contribute to increased food production?
- A. Reducing the need for water
- B. Enhancing resistance to diseases
- C. Improving overall plant height
- D. Increasing yield per unit area
Question:7 What does somatic hybridization offer in plant breeding?
- A. Enhanced weather resistance
- B. In vitro manipulation of plants
- C. Pest control methods
- D. Soil nutrient enrichment
Question:8 Why is plant breeding for disease resistance important in agriculture?
- A. Reducing the need for sunlight
- B. Enhancing the color of fruits
- C. Increasing crop yield
- D. Improving soil fertility
Question:9 What percentage of India’s GDP is contributed by agriculture?
- A. Approximately 10%
- B. Around 25%
- C. Roughly 33%
- D. Nearly 50%
Question:10 What role did Norman E. Borlaug play in the context of food production?
- A. Developed high-yielding varieties of wheat
- B. Invented advanced irrigation techniques
- C. Established the first organic farm
- D. Discovered new fertilizer formulas