NCERT Solution for class 12 Reproductive Health Biology Chapter 4
Reproductive Health class 12 taken from NCERT Book Chapter 4 there is full detailed Explanation of the chapter and all Important Topics are covered read full Information carefully.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Definition
Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse with infected person are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases(STDs) or venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI).
Reproductive Health Class 12 Intoduction
Reproductive Health is crucial as it addresses various aspects related to the well-being and functioning of the reproductive system in humans. This field of study encompasses physical, mental, and social aspects of reproductive health, emphasizing the importance of promoting healthy practices and addressing challenges. Students explore topics such as puberty, human reproductive organs, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs),
fertility issues, and family planning. The goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of reproductive health issues, foster responsible behavior, and promote awareness of factors that contribute to overall reproductive well-being. Through this course, students gain insights into the significance of informed decision-making and the role of education and healthcare in maintaining reproductive health.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Important Notes
Mode of Transmission
–> STDs are transmitted by.
- sexual intercourse with infected person.
- sharing of injection needles, surgical instruments.
- Transfusion of blood from an infected mother to the foetus.
For prevention following simple principles should be followed.
- Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
- one should always use condoms during intercourse.
- if a person is an doubt he/she must consult a qualified doctor.
—> Confirmatory Tests for Sexualy transmitted Dieases.
- Culture and microscopic observation with specific staining.
- Detection of specific antigen/antobody using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) like technique
- DNA hybridiation
- polymersase chain reaction (PCR)
The unlcer appears at the site of infection generally over external genitalia. it is painful bleeds easily. nearby lymph nodes swell up and become tender.
The disease is diagnosed by clinical symptoms, staining of discharge and cell culture
It is spread through sexual contact.
—> Contraception and Family Planning:
Explore various methods of contraception, including barrier methods, hormonal methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and surgical methods. Understand the importance of family planning in maintaining reproductive health.
—> Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Understand the causes of infertility and the role of ART methods such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and surrogacy in assisting couples facing fertility challenges.
–> Maternal and Child Health
Explore concepts related to maternal health, including prenatal care, safe delivery practices, and postnatal care. Understand the importance of promoting the health of both mothers and infants.
—> Adolescent Reproductive Health
Recognize the specific reproductive health needs of adolescents, including education on safe sex, prevention of early pregnancies, and addressing the unique challenges faced by this age group.
—> Role of Education and Awareness
Acknowledge the role of education in promoting awareness about reproductive health issues. Informed decision-making and responsible behavior are key components of maintaining reproductive well-being.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Explanation
You have learned about the human reproductive system and its functions in Chapter 3. Now, let’s delve into a closely related topic – reproductive health. What do we understand by this term? The term simply refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. However, it has a broader perspective and includes the emotional and social aspects of reproduction also. According to the World Health Organization (WHO),
reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioral, and social. Therefore, a society with people having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioral interactions among them in all sex-related aspects might be called reproductively healthy. Why is it significant to maintain reproductive health, and what are the methods taken up to achieve it? Let us examine them.
4.1 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – PROBLEMS AND STRATEGIES
India was amongst the first countries in the world to initiate action plans and programmes at a national level to attain total reproductive health as a social goal. These programmes called ‘family planning’ were initiated in 1951 and were periodically assessed over the past decades. Improved programmes covering wider
Reproduction-related areas are currently in operation under the popular name ‘Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programmes’. Creating awareness among people about various reproduction-related aspects and providing facilities and support for building up a
reproductively healthy society are the major tasks under these programmes. With the help of audio-visual and the print-media governmental and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the people about reproduction-related aspects. Parents, other close relatives, teachers,
and friends also have a major role in the dissemination of the above information. Introduction of sex education in schools should also be encouraged to provide right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects.
Meaning of this word dissemination : dissemination”refers to the act of spreading or dispersing information, knowledge, or ideas widely to reach a broader audience.
Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help people, especially those in the adolescent age group to lead a reproductively healthy life. Educating people, especially fertile couples and those in marriageable age group, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers,
Meaning of this word Adolescent : Adolescent” refers to an individual in the transitional stage of physical and psychological development between childhood and adulthood, typically characterized by puberty.
post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breastfeeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of the desired size. Awareness of problems due to uncontrolled population growth, social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes, etc.,
needs to be created to enable people to think and take up necessary steps to prevent them and thereby build up a socially responsible and healthy society.
Successful implementation of various action plans to attain reproductive health requires strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise, and material support. These are essential to provide medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problems like pregnancy,
delivery, STDs, abortions, contraception, menstrual problems, infertility, etc. Implementation of better techniques and new strategies from time to time is also required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people. Statutory ban on amniocentesis (a foetal sex determination test based on
Meaning of this word Contraception: Contraception” refers to the deliberate use of methods or devices to prevent pregnancy during sexual activity.
the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo) for sex-determination to legally check increasing female foeticides, massive child immunisation, etc., are some programs that merit mention in this connection. Research on various reproduction-related areas is encouraged and supported by governmental and non-governmental agencies to find out new methods and/or to improve upon the existing ones. Do you know that
‘Saheli’–a new oral contraceptive for the females–was developed by scientists at Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow, India? Better awareness about sex-related matters, an increased number of medically assisted deliveries, and better post-natal care leading to decreased maternal.
Very high during this period, it is called the fertile period. Therefore, by abstaining from coitus during this period, conception could be prevented. Withdrawal or coitus interruptus is another method in which the male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation so as to avoid insemination.
Lactational amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) method is based on the fact that ovulation and therefore the cycle do not occur during the period of intense lactation following parturition. Therefore, as long as the mother breast-feeds the child fully, chances of conception are almost nil.
However, this method has been reported to be effective only up to a maximum period of six months following parturition. As no medicines or devices are used in these methods, side effects are almost nil. Chances of failure, though, of this method are also high. In barrier methods, ovum and sperms are prevented from physically meeting with the help of barriers.
Such methods are available for both males and females. Condoms (Figure 4.1 a, b) are barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath that are used to cover the penis in the male or vagina and cervix in the female, just before coitus so that the ejaculated semen would not enter into the female reproductive tract. This can prevent conception.
‘Nirodh’ is a popular brand of condom for the male. Use of condoms has increased in recent years due to its additional benefit of protecting the user from contracting STDs and AIDS. Both the male and the female condoms are disposable, can be self-inserted and thereby give privacy to the user. Diaphragms, cervical caps, and vaults are also barriers.
Made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the cervix. They are reusable. Spermicidal creams, jellies, and foams are usually used along with these barriers to increase their contraceptive efficiency.
Another effective and popular method is the use of Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs). These devices are inserted by doctors or expert nurses in the uterus through the vagina. These Intra Uterine Devices are presently available as the non-medicated IUDs (e.g., Lippes loop), copper-releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375),
and the hormone-releasing IUDs (Progestasert, LNG-20) (Figure 4.2). IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus, and the Cu ions released suppress sperm motility and the fertilizing capacity of sperms. The hormone-releasing IUDs, in addition, make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperms. IUDs are ideal contraceptives for females.
Who want to delay pregnancy and/or space children. It is one of the most widely accepted methods of contraception in India. Oral administration of small doses of either progestogens or progestogen–estrogen combinations is another contraceptive method used by females. They are used in the form of tablets and hence are popularly called the pills.
Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting preferably within the first five days of the menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days (during which menstruation occurs) it has to be repeated in the same pattern till the female desires to prevent conception. They inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard the
entry of sperms. Pills are very effective with fewer side effects and are well accepted by females. Saheli –the new oral contraceptive for the females contains a non-steroidal preparation. It is a ‘once a week’ pill with very few side effects and high contraceptive value. Progestogens alone or in combination with estrogen can also be used by females as
injections or implants under the skin (Figure 4.3). Their mode of action is similar to that of pills, and their effective periods are much longer. Administration of progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combinations or IUDs within 72 hours of coitus has been found to be very effective as emergency
contraceptives as they could be used to avoid possible pregnancy due to rape or casual unprotected intercourse. Surgical methods, also called sterilisation, are generally advised for the male/female partner as a terminal method to prevent any more pregnancies. Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevents conception. Sterilization procedure in the male is called ‘vasectomy’.
Reproductive Health Class 12 summary
Reproductive health refers to a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioral, and social. Our nation was the first nation in the world to initiate various action plans at the national level towards attaining a reproductively healthy society. Counseling and creating awareness among people about reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices,
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS, etc., is the primary step towards reproductive health. Providing medical facilities and care for problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy-related aspects, delivery, medical termination of pregnancy, STDs, birth control, infertility,
postnatal child and maternal management is another important aspect of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programs. An overall improvement in reproductive health has taken place in our country as indicated by reduced maternal and infant mortality rates, early detection and cure of STDs, assistance to infertile couples, etc.
Improved health facilities and better living conditions promoted an explosive growth of population. Such growth necessitated intense propagation of contraceptive methods. Various contraceptive options are available now such as natural, traditional, barrier, IUDs, pills, injectables, implants, and surgical methods.
Though contraceptives are not regular requirements for reproductive health, one is forced to use them to avoid pregnancy or to delay or space pregnancy. Medical termination of pregnancy is legalized in our country. MTP is generally performed to get rid of unwanted pregnancy due to rapes, casual relationships, etc.,
as also in cases when the continuation of pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to either the mother or the fetus or both. Diseases or infections transmitted through sexual intercourse are called Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PIDs), stillbirth, infertility are some of the complications of them. Early detection facilitates better cure of these diseases. Avoiding sexual intercourse with unknown/multiple partners, use of condoms during coitus are some of the simple precautions to avoid contracting STDs.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Question and Answer
Question:1 Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Yes, sex education is necessary in schools. It is because of the following reasons:
- Imparts apt and necessary information to students in order to save them from misconceptions and myths about sex-related topics.
- Provides appropriate knowledge about adolescence, reproductive organs and related concepts.
- Creates awareness amongst students about the need for hygienic and safe sexual practices and sexually transmitted diseases. This helps students, specifically those in adolescence, to lead a healthy reproductive life.
Question:2 Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Yes, the use of contraceptives is completely justified.
The human population is increasing exponentially. In order to regulate this population growth, keeping a check on the process of reproduction has become the need of the hour. For this purpose, different contraceptive devices have been circulated for use so as to reduce unwanted pregnancies, which have helped to lessen the recorded count of birth rate, thereby regulating the process of population explosion.
Question:3 Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples in having children.
- Fertility Treatments:
- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): This involves fertilizing an egg with sperm outside the body and implanting the embryo into the uterus.
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Sperm is directly placed into the uterus during the woman’s fertile window.
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
- Hormone Therapies:
- Ovulation Induction: Hormonal medications stimulate egg production in the ovaries.
- Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Used to address hormonal imbalances affecting fertility.
- Laparoscopic Surgery: Corrects anatomical issues such as blocked fallopian tubes or endometriosis.
- Varicocele Surgery: Repairs enlarged veins in the scrotum, which can impact sperm production.
- Donor Services:
- Egg or Sperm Donation: Using donated eggs or sperm in assisted reproductive technologies.
- Surrogacy: A woman carries and gives birth to a child for another individual or couple.
- Lifestyle Changes:
- Healthy Diet and Exercise: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can positively impact fertility.
- Stress Management: Reducing stress through relaxation techniques may enhance fertility.
Question:4 what are the suggested reasons for the population explosion ?
- Decline in Death Rates:
- Advances in medicine, sanitation, and healthcare have significantly reduced mortality rates. Improved disease control and access to medical treatments have led to longer life expectancies.
- Improved Living Standards:
- Rising living standards, including better nutrition and access to clean water, contribute to healthier populations and lower mortality rates.
- Technological Advancements in Agriculture:
- The Green Revolution, marked by technological advancements in agriculture, increased food production and reduced famine, contributing to population growth.
- Industrialization and Urbanization:
- The shift from agrarian societies to industrialized and urbanized settings often leads to higher birth rates. Urban areas tend to have better healthcare and job opportunities, encouraging larger families.
- Cultural and Religious Influences:
- Cultural and religious beliefs promoting larger families can contribute to higher birth rates in certain communities.
- Lack of Education and Awareness:
- In regions with limited access to education and family planning resources, there may be a lack of awareness about contraception methods, leading to higher birth rates.
Reproductive Health Class 12 MCQ Question and Answer
Question:1 What does the term “Reproductive Health” encompass?
- A) Physical health only
- B) Emotional health only
- C) Physical, emotional, behavioral, and social well-being
- D) Social well-being only
Question:2 In which year were the family planning programs initiated in India?
- A) 1947
- B) 1951
- C) 1965
- D) 1972
Question:3 Which contraceptive method involves the insertion of a device into the uterus through the vagina?
- A) Condom
- B) Diaphragm
- C) Intrauterine Device (IUD)
- D) Oral contraceptives
Question:4 What is the primary function of hormonal contraceptives like birth control pills?
- A) Inhibit ovulation and implantation
- B) Increase sperm motility
- C) Block entry of sperms through the cervix
- D) Prevent STDs
Question:5 Which method of contraception involves preventing insemination by withdrawing the penis before ejaculation?
- B) Diaphragm
- C) Coitus interruptus
- D) Intrauterine Device (IUD)
Question:6 What is the term for the deliberate use of methods or devices to prevent pregnancy during sexual activity?
- A) Fertility treatment
- B) Contraception
- C) Sterilization
- D) Infertility management
Question:7 Which fertility treatment involves the direct injection of a single sperm into an egg?
- A) In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
- B) Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
- C) Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
- D) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Question:8 What is the primary purpose of Emergency Contraceptives?
- A) Preventing STDs
- B) Delaying menstruation
- C) Avoiding possible pregnancy after unprotected intercourse
- D) Inducing fertility
Question:9 What is the surgical procedure for permanent contraception in males?
- A) Tubal ligation
- B) Vasectomy
- C) Hysterectomy
- D) Oophorectomy
Question: 10 What has contributed to the overall improvement in reproductive health in some countries?
- A) Decreased access to education
- B) Improved healthcare and living conditions
- C) Limited family planning options
- D) Higher maternal and infant mortality rates
In conclusion, the study of Reproductive Health in Class 12 provides a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted aspects related to human reproduction. Recognizing that reproductive health goes beyond physical well-being, encompassing emotional, behavioral, and social dimensions, is crucial in fostering a holistic approach. The initiation of national-level family planning programs in India in 1951 marked a pivotal step toward achieving a reproductively healthy society